Whereas the cannabinoid CBG serves because the constructing block for different, more-recognizable useful cannabis compounds like THC and CBD, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid CBG has demonstrated to additionally supply potential therapeutic purposes itself.
The cannabis plant comprises greater than 100 cannabinoids, a novel class of lively chemical compounds that act on receptors in our cells and alter the discharge of neurotransmitters within the mind. It’s seemingly you’ve heard of the 2 hottest cannabinoids – CBD and THC – however are you acquainted with CBG?
Whereas CBG shouldn’t be current in massive portions in most cannabis strains, examine findings counsel that it’s value studying about attributable to potential CBG advantages.
CBG, or cannabigerol, is taken into account a minor cannabinoid as a result of in most cannabis strains it’s present in low concentrations, often lower than 1 p.c in marijuana and fewer than 2 p.c in hemp.5 First found by scientists in 1964, CBG is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, that means that it received’t trigger a euphoric “excessive” like THC.13 Additional, CBG is thought to dam the psychoactive results of THC.
CBG: Precursor to CBD and THC
CBG is taken into account the precursor, or “chemical mum or dad,” of cannabinoids as a result of all different cannabinoids, together with the main cannabinoids CBD and THC, begin as CBG.
Hashish vegetation produce cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), the non-acidic type of CBG. Particular enzymes within the plant then break CBGA down into different acidic cannabinoids, reminiscent of (cannabidiolic acid) CBDA and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). As soon as the cannabis plant is aged or heated, a course of referred to as decarboxylation, these acids convert to CBD and THC, the lively model of those cannabinoids.
For those who’re a cannabis producer involved in extracting larger yields of CBG, you have to pull the compound from budding vegetation sooner than normal, sometimes six weeks into the eight-week flowering cycle, earlier than CBG is transformed into different compounds. These days, breeders are additionally experimenting with crossbreeding and genetic manipulation to extend ranges of CBG in some strains.
Results of CBG
Once you devour cannabis, the physique absorbs CBG in addition to the opposite cannabinoids current. CBG and different cannabinoids have an identical chemical make-up to the physique’s naturally synthesized endocannabinoids, permitting them to work together with the physique’s endocannabinoid system, a regulatory community liable for holding most of the physique’s capabilities in steadiness.
The endocannabinoid system has two forms of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. CBG has been discovered to behave as a CB1 antagonist, that means it will possibly dampen the receptor’s related organic response by partially binding with and blocking it. Research counsel CBG additionally binds to CB2 receptors, however its pharmacological exercise there’s at the moment unknown.7
CBG has additionally been proven to acts as an antagonist on 5-HT1A receptors, which controls the discharge of the neurotransmitter serotonin. With G-protein-coupled α2-adrenergic receptors, nevertheless, CBG acts as an agonist, binding and activating the receptors to probably affect the discharge of norepinephrine and epinephrine.7
Research additionally point out that CBG acts on vanilloid receptor 1 (TrpV1), which detects and regulates physique temperature and ache response.11
Moreover, CBG has been demonstrated to presumably enhance ranges of Anandamide, one of many physique’s pure endocannabinoids that binds with cannabinoid receptors to manage capabilities like urge for food, sleep, and reminiscence. CBG has been proven to inhibit the enzymes that break down Anandamide.11
Advantages of CBG: What Analysis Has Discovered
Whereas cannabis has been used therapeutically for hundreds of years, solely over the previous few a long time have scientists begun to determine the plant’s compounds and perceive how cannabinoids work together with the physique’s pure programs to advertise wellness. Researchers have but to totally perceive CBG and the quantity of research continues to be restricted.
Nonetheless, the research which were performed on CBG have revealed a number of doable therapeutic purposes.10
Research have discovered that CBG will increase aqueous circulate, decreasing intraocular strain in instances of glaucoma.21 A 1990 animal examine discovered that CBG mixed with THC elevated aqueous circulate by two to a few instances.8
CBG has been proven to have neuroprotective properties, convincing scientists that the cannabinoid alone, or together with different cannabinoids or therapies, could also be useful for the remedy of neurodegenerative illnesses like Huntington’s illness.22
Urge for food Stimulant
A 2016 animal examine discovered proof that CBG can act as a well-tolerated urge for food stimulant. Within the examine, CBG was in a position to elicit starvation with out inflicting any hostile unintended effects.4
Encourage Bone Progress
CBG and different cannabinoids confirmed that their interplay with CB2 receptors stimulated bone marrow stem cells, suggesting they may very well be useful for each selling new bone development and formation and serving to the therapeutic of bone fractures.20
A 2006 laboratory examine discovered proof that an array of cannabinoids, together with CBG, had been in a position to sluggish the development and development of tumors associated to such cancers as:
- Leukemia cancers15,16
One other examine in 2014 discovered that CBG successfully hampered the expansion of colon most cancers.3
Like different cannabinoids, CBG has been proven to scale back irritation, prompting researchers to counsel it may very well be useful for the remedy of autoimmune illnesses.6 CBG has demonstrated that it inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme liable for inducing the inflammatory response.19
CBG’s anti-inflammatory properties have additionally been proven to probably be useful for inflammatory bowel illness and a number of sclerosis.2,14
Researchers have discovered proof that CBG and different cannabinoids are efficient for decreasing bladder contractions, suggesting they might be useful for treating varied bladder dysfunctions.17
Pores and skin Situations
CBG has been proven to presumably inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, suggesting that it may play a therapeutic function within the effort to assuage pores and skin situations like psoriasis.18,23
CBG has additionally demonstrated antifungal and antimicrobial properties.12 In a 2008 examine, CBG was extremely efficient in opposition to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a extremely prevalent, but antibiotic-resistant pressure of micro organism.1
Be taught Extra about Cannabinoids
CBG is one in all greater than 100 cannabinoids in medical marijuana which have up to now been recognized. Extra effectively understood cannabinoids, like CBD and THC, have additionally demonstrated therapeutic potential.
You’ll be able to study extra about what analysis has found concerning the doable advantages of cannabinoids by visiting our schooling web page or head over to our Hashish 101 web page for extra about utilizing marijuana.
- Appendino, G., Gibbons, S., Giana, A., Pagani, A., Grassi, G., Stavri, M., Smith, E., and Rahman, M.M. (2008). Antibacterial cannabinoids from Hashish sativa: A structure-activity examine. Journal of Pure Merchandise, 71(8), 1427-1430. Retrieved from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/np8002673.
- Borrelli, F., Fasolino, I., Romano, B., Capasso, R., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., Orlando, P., Battista, G., Pagano, E., Di Marco, V., and Izzo, A.A. (2013, Might). Helpful impact of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel illness. Biochemical Pharmacology, 95(9), 1306-16. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295213000543?through=ihub.
- Borelli, F., Pagano, E., Romano, B., Panzera, S., Maiello, F., Coppola, D., De Petrocellis, L., Buono, L., Orlando, P., Izzo, A.A. (2014, December). Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Hashish-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid. Carcinogenesis, 35(12), 2787-97. Retrieved from https://tutorial.oup.com/carcin/article/35/12/2787/335166.
- Brierley, D.I., Samuels, J., Duncan, M., Whalley, B.J., and Williams, C.M. (2016, October). Cannabigerol is a novel, well-tolerated urge for food stimulant in pre-satiated rats. Psychopharmacology, 233(19), 3603–3613. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021742/.
- Cannabigerol (CBG) – Higher Than CBD? 420 Evaluations. Retrieved from https://420evaluationsonline.com/health-and-news/cannabigerol-cbg-better-than-cbd.
- Carrillo-Salinas, F.J., Navarrete, C., Mecha, M., Feliú, A., Collado, J.A., Cantarero, I., Bellido, M.L., Munoz, E., and Guaza, C. (2014). A Cannabigerol Spinoff Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e94733. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3984273/.
- Cascio, M.G., Gauson, L.A., Stevenson, L.A., Ross, R.A., and Pertwell, R.G. (2010, January). Proof that the plant cannabinoid cannabigerol is a extremely potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist and reasonably potent 5HT1A receptor antagonist. British Journal of Pharmacology, 159(1), 129-41. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823359/.
- Colasanti, B.Okay. (1990, Winter). A comparability of the ocular and central results of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabigerol. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology, 6(4), 259-69. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1965836.
- Colasanti, B.Okay., Craig, C.R., Allara, R.D. (1984, September). Intraocular strain, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administration of cannabinol or cannabigerol. Experimental Eye Analysis, 39(3), 251-9. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0014483584900137?through=ihub.
- Deiana, S. (2017). Chapter 99 – Potential medical makes use of of cannabigerol: A quick overview. Handbook of Hashish and Associated Pathologies, 958-67. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128007563001150.
- De Petrocellis, L., Ligresti, A., Moriello, A.S., Allarà, M., Bisogno, T., Petrosino, S., Stott, C.G., and Di Marzo, V. (2011). Results of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Hashish extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7), 1479–1494. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165957/.
- Elsohly, H.N., Turner, C.E., Clark, A.M., and Elsohly, M.A. (1982, December). Synthesis and antimicrobial actions of sure cannabichromene and cannabigerol associated compounds. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71(12), 1319-1323. Retrieved from http://jpharmsci.org/article/S0022-3549(15)44421-1/pdf.
- Gaoni, Y., and Mechoulam, R. (1964). Cannabis II. The construction and synthesis of cannabigerol, a brand new cannabis constituent. Proceedings of the Chemical Society, 82.
- Granja, A.G., Carrillo-Salinas, .F, Pagani, A., Gómez-Cañas, M., Negri, R., Navarrete, C., Mecha, M., Mestre, L., Fiebich, B.L., Cantarero, I., Calzado, M.A., Bellido, M.L., Fernandez-Ruiz, J., Appendino, G., Guaza, C., Muñoz, E. (2012, December). A cannabigerol quinone alleviates neuroinflammation in a power mannequin of a number of sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 7(4), 1002-1016. Retrieved from https://hyperlink.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11481-012-9399-3.
- Izzo, A.A., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Di Marzo, V., and Mechoulam, R. (2009, October). Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic alternatives from an historical herb. Traits in Pharmacological Sciences, 30(10), 515-27. Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/tendencies/pharmacological-sciences/fulltext/S0165-6147(09)00128-X.
- Ligresti, A., Moriello, A.S., Starowicz, Okay., Matias, I., Pisanti, S., De Petrocellis, L., Laezza, C., Portella, G., Bifulco, M., and Di Marzo, V. (2006, September). Antitumor exercise of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the impact of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 318(3), 1375-87. Retrieved from http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content material/318/3/1375.lengthy.
- Pagano, E., Montanaro, V., Di Girolamo, A., Pistone, A., Altieri, V., Zjawiony, J.Okay., Izzo, A.A., and Capasso, R. (2015, June). Results of non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoids on bladder contractility: Give attention to cannabigerol. Pure Product Communications, 10(6), 1009-12. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26197538.
- Pucci, M., Rapino, C., Di Francesco, A., Dainese, E., D’Addario, C., and Maccarrone, M. (2013). Epigenetic management of pores and skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids. British Journal of Pharmacology, 170(3), 581–591. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791996/.
- Ruhaak, L.R., Felth, J., Karlsson, P.C., Rafter, J.J., Verpoorte, R., and Bohlin, L. (2011). Analysis of the Cyclooxygenase inhibiting results of six main cannabinoids remoted from Hashish sativa. Organic and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 34(5), 774-778. Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bpb/34/5/34_5_774/_article.
- Scutt, A., and Williamson, E.M. (2007, January). Cannabinoids stimulate fibroblastic colony formation by bone marrow cells not directly through CB2 receptors. Calcified Tissue Worldwide, 80(1), 50-9. Retrieved from https://hyperlink.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-006-0171-7.
- Szczesniak, A.M., Maor, Y., Robertson, H., Hung, O., and Kelly, M.E. (2011, October). Nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, irregular cannabidiol and canabigerol-dimethyl heptyl, act at novel cannabinoid receptors to scale back intraocular strain. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27(5), 427-35. Retrieved from http://on-line.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jop.2011.0041.
- Valdeolivas, S., Navarrete, C., Cantarero, I., Bellido, M.L., Muñoz, E., & Sagredo, O. (2015). Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Illness: Research in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice. Neurotherapeutics, 12(1), 185–199. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322067/.
- Wilkinson, J.D., and Williamson, E.M. (2007, February). Cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation by a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a possible therapeutic worth within the remedy of psoriasis. Journal of Dermatological Science, 45(2), 87-92. Retrieved from http://www.jdsjournal.com/article/S0923-1811(06)00315-X/fulltext.